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Gemstones are very special and unique, with their own wonderful qualities. Rather than giving the “meanings” here, which vary widely depending on culture, era and spirituality, I suggest you consider gemstones of which you love the appearance, or hold special meaning to you.

The Mohs Scale of Hardness is used to describe gemstone hardness. Talc is 1 Gypsum is 2 Calcite is 3 Fluorite
is 4 Apatite is 5 Feldspar is 6 Quartz is 7 Topaz is 8 Sapphire is 9 Diamond is 10.
Generally, the harder the stone, the more resiliant it will be to hard knocks or scratches. Therefor, rings are best suited to being set with harder stones, whereas stones in pendants and earrings can be softer without the same potential for damage.

 Common Name
 Details  
Agate
Agate Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Chalcedony Quartz
Typical Colours: Blue, Blue Lace, Moss, Pink, Red
Hardness (out of 10): 6.5-7.0 Mohs
Almandine
Garnet
Almandine Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: Orange-red, Purple-Red
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0-7.5 Mohs
Amber
Amber Gemstone in  Sterling Silver Skull
Organic Material
Typical Colours: Translucent Yellow, Orange
Hardness
(out of 10): 2.0-2.5 Mohs
Amethyst
Amethyst Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Translucent Purple
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Aquamarine
Aquamarine Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Beryl
Typical Colours: Translucent Light Blue, Blue-GreenHardness
(out of 10): 7.5-8.0 Mohs
Aventurine
Aventurine Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Metamorphic Rock (Multiple Minerals)
Typical Colours: Translucent GreenHardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Beryl Includes the varieties Aquamarine and Emerald
Typical Colours: Blue-Green, Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.5-8.0 Mohs
Bloodstone
Bloodstone Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Chalcedony Quartz
Typical Colours: Dark Green with Red FlecksHardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Cat’s Eye
Cat's Eye Gemstone in  Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Chrysoberyl
Typical Colours: Yellow, Green with Colour StreakHardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Citrine
Citrine Quartz Gemstone in  Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Translucent Yellow, Orange
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Demantoid Garnet
Demantoid Garnet Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: Green, Yellow_green
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.5 Mohs
Diamond
Diamond in Safari Lee Jewellery
Hardest Gemstone
Typical Colours: Translucent White, Champagne, Yellow, Orange, Pink, Blue
Hardness
(out of 10): 10 Mohs
Emerald
Emerald Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Beryl
Typical Colours: Green, Yellow-Green, Blue-Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.5-8.0 Mohs
Fluorite
Fluorite Gemstone in  Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Blue, Purple, Clear, Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 4.0 Mohs
Garnet Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Many colours depending on Garnet Variety
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Hematite
AKA Iron Oxide
Hematite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Opaque Metallic Grey
Hardness
(out of 10): 5.5-6.0 Mohs
Iolite
Iolite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Translucent Purple, Bluish-Purple, Lavender
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0-7.5 Mohs
Jade
Jade Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Jadeite, Nephrite
Typical Colours: Translucent Green, Opaque GreenHardness
(out of 10): 6.0-7.0 Mohs
Jasper
Jasper Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Chalcedony Quartz
Typical Colours: Opaque Yellow, Orange, Brown, Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.0 Mohs
Kunzite
Kunzite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Pink, Clear, Purple
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0- 7.0 Mohs
Labradorite
Labradorite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Feldspar
Typical Colours: Metallic Grey-Blue, Multi-coloured
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0 Mohs
Lapis Lazuli
Lapis Lazuli Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Opaque Medium to Dark Blue with White/Gold Flecks
Hardness
(out of 10): 5.5 Mohs
Malachite
Malachite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Bright to Dark Banded Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 3.5-4.0 Mohs
Marcasite
Marcasite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Pyrite
Typical Colours: Metallic Grey
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0-6.5 Mohs
Moonstone
Moonstone Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Pink, White, Yellow
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0 Mohs
Nephrite
Nephrite Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Jade
Typical Colours: Translucent Green, Opaque Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0-7.0 Mohs
Onyx
Onyx Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Chalcedony Quartz
Typical Colours: Black, Blue, Moss Green, Pink, Red
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.0 Mohs
Opal
Opal Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Boulder Opal
Typical Colours: Opalescent with internal colors, such as red, blue, green
Hardness (out of 10): 5.5-6.5 Mohs
Peridot (AKA Olivine)
Peridot Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Peridot
Typical Colours: Green, Yellow-Green, Olive-Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.0 Mohs
Quartz Rose Quartz, Citrine, Amethyst
Typical Colours: Many varieties depending on variety
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Rhodolite Garnet
Rhodalite Garnet Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: Purple-Red
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.5 Mohs
Rock Crystal
Quartz Crystal Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Clear
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Rose Quartz
Rose Quartz Gemstone in Safari  Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Rose Pink
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Ruby
Ruby Gemstone in Safari  Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Corundum
Typical Colours: Translucent Red, Pink, Purple-Red
Hardness
(out of 10): 9.0 Mohs
Sapphire
Sapphire Gemstones in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Corundum
Typical Colours: Translucent Blue, Green, Pink, Purple, Yellow, Orange, Clear
Hardness
(out of 10): 9.0 Mohs
Serpentine
Serpentine Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Green, Black-Green, Brown-Red, Brown-Yellow, White
Hardness
(out of 10): 5.0 Mohs
Spessartine Garnet
Spessartine Garnet Gemstone in  Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: Yellow_OrangeHardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.5 Mohs
Spinel
Spinel Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Spinel
Typical Colours:Blue, Blue Lace, Moss, Pink, Red
Hardness
(out of 10): 8.0 Mohs
Tigers Eye
Tigers Eye Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Quartz
Typical Colours: Translucent Yellow, Orange
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Topaz
Topaz Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Topaz
Typical Colours: Yellow, Blue, Pink
Hardness
(out of 10): 8.0 Mohs
Tourmaline
Tourmaline Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Tourmaline
Typical Colours: Green, Pink
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0 Mohs
Tsavorite
Tsavorite Garnet Gemstones in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: Dark Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 7.0-7.5 Mohs
Turquoise
Turquoise Gemstones in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Turquoise
Typical Colours: Opaque Light Blue, Blue-Green
Hardness
(out of 10): 5.0-6.0 Mohs
Unakite
Unakite Gemstones in Safari Lee Jewellery
Typical Colours: Pink/Gren
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.0-7.0 Mohs
Uvarovite Garnet
Uvarovite Garnet in Safari Lee Jewellery
Gemstone Group: Garnet
Typical Colours: GreenHardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.5 Mohs
Zircon
Zircon Gemstone in Safari Lee Jewellery
Quartz
Typical Colours: Many colours, Clear
Hardness
(out of 10): 6.5-7.0 Mohs